Required Formal Writing Assignment Typed in Microsoft Word Approximately 8-10 pa
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Required Formal Writing Assignment
Typed in Microsoft Word
Approximately 8-10 pages in length
12 point font with one inch margins
Address the following:
Identify the reasons for U.S. entry into World War I. Why did President Woodrow Wilson fail to achieve his goal of “peace without victory?” Explain why Woodrow Wilson is depicted as one of History’s most tragic figures?
Note #1: The only materials you are allowed to use must come ONLY from my online lectures or the readings in your textbook. Those that plagiarize will fail the course and be reported, while those using materials from outside the lectures, but have not plagiarized, will receive a zero on any question in which any outside material is used. In other words, do not copy anything from the internet, paste it into your essay and try to pass it off as your work. Just don’t do it.
Note #2: Use your own words. If you are directly quoting from your instructor’s online lecture or the textbook, place quotation marks around the passage, and at the end of the sentence in parentheses add (Bales, online lecture) or (Foner, page ##).
Note #3: Before you submit your essays, run them through a spell checking and grammar checking program such as “Grammarly.” Pay special attention to sentence structure, spelling, punctuation, and the proper use of capital letters. Proper names must be capitalized.
Note #4: Use paragraphs in your writing. When you change the subject even slightly, indent five spaces and start a new paragraph.
Note #5: Do not use any outside sources. Use only your instructor’s lecture and your textbook.
Note #6: All assignments must be submitted double-spaced in Microsoft Word format. Failure to do so will result in a zero for the exam.
Your paper needs to consist of the following:
Label all the sections of your paper.
Your Introduction (1-2 paragraphs in length) should explain to the reader the topics you will be covering in your paper. What will you be accomplishing in your work?
Part I needs to address the following:
Identify the reasons for American entry into World War I.
Hint: There are nine of them. Briefly explain each one.
Part II needs to address the following:
Describe Woodrow Wilson’s vision for postwar peace, the Fourteen Points. Did he succeed when he journeyed to Europe to personally attend the Paris Peace Conference in 1919? How well did the final version of the Treaty of Versailles match up with Wilson’s goals for achieving a lasting postwar peace?
In his war address to Congress on April 2, 1917, President Woodrow Wilson spoke of the need for the United States to enter the war in part to “make the world safe for democracy.” Almost a year later, this sentiment remained strong, articulated in a speech to Congress on January 8, 1918, where he introduced his Fourteen Points. Designed as guidelines for the rebuilding of the postwar world, the points included Wilson’s ideas regarding nations’ conduct of foreign policy, including freedom of the seas and free trade and the concept of national self-determination, with the achievement of this through the dismantling of European empires and the creation of new states. Most importantly, however, was Point 14, which called for a “general association of nations” that would offer “mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small nations alike.” When Wilson left for Paris in December 1918, he was determined that the Fourteen Points, and his League of Nations (as the association of nations was known), be incorporated into the peace settlements. (the worldwar.org)
You are not required to write about the actual fighting in the war, just begin this section of your paper by explaining President Wilson’s Fourteen Points and then address his trip to the Paris Peace Conference after the war ended. Just be sure to understand the following: The Congress declared war in April 1917, and the American Expeditionary Force under the command of General Pershing arrived in France just in the nick of time. The Allies (Great Britain and France) were exhausted and on the brink of total collapse, so it must have seemed like a miracle when into the muck and mire dashed fresh-faced American soldiers. So desperate were the Allies in 1917 that America rushed its youthful army across the Atlantic before a lot of our guys had a chance to figure out which end of a rifle was supposed to face outward. But their courage was ready and, suffering heavy casualties, they helped push back German attacks at Château-Thierry and Belleau Wood in May and June of 1918, and through the rest of the summer and into the fall, they led the final Allied counter thrust at St. Mihiel and the Argonne Forest. The Germans were just as battered as the French and the British, but no counterweight to the well-fed eager Americans arrived to prop them up. As they were pushed out of their trenches and back toward their own country, most German military leaders could read the handwriting on the wall, and on November 11, 1918, Germany signed an armistice (peace agreement) and the news rang out “All Quiet On The Western Front.”
This section of your paper should focus first on what President Wilson wanted for the world after World War I… his personal vision for postwar peace. He often spoke about “the war to make the world safe for democracy” and “the war to end all wars.” Then he offered more detail when he gave a big speech before Congress calling for the adoption of his “Fourteen Points.” He was definitely an idealist and a dreamer. Write first about Wilson’s Fourteen Points. Then conclude your essay by explaining the reception President Wilson (and his Fourteen Points) received when he arrived in France to participate in the Paris Peace Conference.
Be sure to explain that Wilson wanted a lenient peace treaty – he called it “peace without victory” – but what the Allies (Great Britain, France, and Italy) demanded and got was a harsh treaty that punished Germany, in effect, “peace with victory.”
Also be sure to note that Wilson did not return to the United States completely empty-handed. The Treaty of Versailles (named after the huge palace outside of Paris where they held their negotiations) did include a provision calling for the creation of an international peacekeeping organization (to be called the League of Nations) where world leaders could meet to solve problems without needing to resort to war. The League of Nations was Wilson’s idea and he believed in it with all his heart.
Readings in your text in Chapter 19 will help you.